Group Coordinator: Alda Maria Pereira Simões
The research group is hosted by IST, where it was created in 1983. It migrated in 2013 to CQE, following the dissolution of ICEMS
(FCT-UI0084). The group research lines are Corrosion, Applied Electrochemistry, Surface Functionalization and Nanomaterials, in
collaboration with industrial partners from aeronautics, automotive, biomedical, oil & gas and energy storage. Internationalization
is an important factor, particularly in the frame of European funded projects and industrial contracts. A total of 8 PhD dissertations
were finished in 2013-2017 with supervision or co-supervision in the group. The work is supported by strong know-how of the
multidisciplinary team (Chemical Engineering, Materials Engineering and Chemistry), with 12 PhD integrated members, two of
them post-doc grant holders, and a well-equipped laboratory, including advanced electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques.
Excessive consumption of natural resources is a huge sustainability issue. Metals are the most easily recyclable and
environmentally friendly structural materials and corrosion control is in this respect a modern niche of engineering. The group
deals with several objectives, aligned with the thematic areas "Sustainable Chemistry" and "Materials". Following the research in
recent years, the proposed activities for 2018-2022 are focussed on: i) Increased durability of materials by using protective
surface layers and adhesives; ii) Tailoring of smart coatings for specific purposes; iii) Engineering of supercapacitors using
aqueous electrolytes, alternative to the less environmentally friendly organic liquids; iv) Design of nanoparticles for multipurpose
applications, using low-cost and low-impact syntheses procedures. The reinforcement of the activities on the areas of Energy
Storage and Nanomaterials is planned, while new applications of the techniques and know-how of the group to new industrial
areas, namely to Oil &Gas (in collaboration with Brazilian partners) are starting.
COSMETIC CORROSION AND THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY
Car bodies are made of painted electrogalvanized steel sheet, in which a few microns of zinc provide sacrificial protection to steel,
in a versatile solution for lightweight weldable structures. At the cut edge, however, bimetallic corrosion causes delamination of the
organic coating, in a process called "cosmetic corrosion". In collaboration with European steel producers, these processes were
studied at the microscale, using a model electrode mimicking the cut edge and based upon advanced (electro)chemical
techniques. The combined techniques allowed mapping of ionic currents in solution, oxygen concentration, feedback currents with
a redox mediator, local electrochemical impedance and local pH. This approach was an important development for understanding
galvanic corrosion. Parameter monitorization along the cut edge was achieved, allowing the follow-up of the corrosion process.
Two European RFS projects supported this work and two PhD theses resulted from it.
HYBRID ELECTROCHEMICAL STORAGE
Metal compound based hybrid electrochemical energy storage (HEES) is emerging as a highly promising solution to provide
enhanced storage capacity and high power performance. Properties of metal compound based redox active electrodes, including
chemical composition, morphology, crystal structure and conductivity govern the performance of storage devices. In the frame of 2
National projects and 2 European projects we have developed novel electrodes combining synergistic mixtures of Ni, Co and Mn
oxides or layered hydroxides (highly cited paper in Scientific reports), metal compounds and carbon (including graphene)
composites and functionalized metallic nanofoams. The new electrode architectures are tailored for enhanced electrochemical
activity in aqueous electrolytes and display increased energy and power densities as well as extended lifetime. Extended working
potential windows have been achieved. This research activity involves 4 PhD students and a spin off company was created.
The biomedical sector imposes specific requirements and constitutes a great challenge to the development of advanced functional
coatings for bioresorbabble implants such as those made of Zn and Mg and its alloys. Slow corrosion rate, biocompatibility,
enhanced cell proliferation, decreased inflammatory risks and osteointegration are basic requirements for a biocompatible coating.
Novel nanosized ZnO coatings demonstrated important anti-microbial and anti-bacterial activity. Three PhD thesis addressed the
design and formulation of multilayered composite coatings for bioresorbable Mg alloys. The biodegradable organic and composite
coatings were modified with nanoparticles to stimulate cell adhesion and bone growth, to introduce anti-bacterial properties, and
to introduce controlled drug delivery of molecules such as antibiotics and anti-inflammatory molecules, while providing controlled
Venancio, PG; Cottis, RA; Narayanaswamy, R; Fernandes, JCS; “Optical Sensors for Corrosion Detection in Airframes”, Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical, 182 (2013) 774– 781.
Zomorodian, A; Garcia, MP; Moura e Silva, T; Fernandes,JCS; Fernandes, MH; Montemor, MF; “Corrosion resistance of a composite polymeric coating applied on biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy”, Acta Biomaterialia, 9 (2013) 8660-8670
Montemor, MF; Snihirova, DV;Taryba, MG; Lamaka, SV; Kartsonakis, I; Balaskas, A; Kordas, G; Tedim, J; Kuznetsova,A; Zheludkevich, ML; Ferreira, MGS; “Evaluation of self-healing ability in protective coatings modified with combination of nanocontainers filled with corrosion inhibitors“; Electrochim. Acta, 60 (2012) 31-40
Silva, RP; Eugénio, S; Silva, TM; Carmezim, MJ; Montemor, MF; “Fabrication of three-dimensional dendritic Ni-Co films by electrodeposition on stainless steel substrates“, J. Phys. Chem. C 116 (42) (2012), 22425-22431
Bastos, AC; Ferreira, MGS; Simoes, AMP; “The uneven corrosion of deep drawn coil-coatings investigated by EIS“; Electrochim. Acta 56 (2011) 7825-7832
Salgado, JRC; Fernandes, JCS; do Rego, AMB ; Ferraria, AM; Duarte, RG; Ferreira, MGS; “Pt-Ru nanoparticles supported on functionalized carbon as electrocatalysts for the methanol oxidation“, Electrochim. Acta, 56(24) (2011) 8509-8518
Lamaka, SV; Taryba, M; Montemor, MF; Isaacs, HS; Ferreira, MGS; “Quasi-simultaneous measurements of ionic currents by vibrating probe and pH distribution by ion-selective microelectrode“; Electrochemistry Communications 13 (2011) 20-23
Custodio, JV; Agostinho, SML; Simoes, AMP; “Electrochemistry and surface analysis of the effect of benzotriazole on the cut edge corrosion of galvanized steel“; Electrochimica Acta 20 (2010) 5523-5531
Snihirova, D; Lamaka, SV; Taryba, M; Salak, AN; Kallip, S; Zheludkevich, ML; Ferreira, MGS; Montemor, MF;.” Hydroxyapatite microparticles as feed-back active reservoirs of corrosion inhibitors“; ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2 (2010) 3011-3022
Figueira N; Silva TM; Carmezim MJ; Fernandes JCS; “Corrosion Behaviour of NiTi Alloy“, Electrochimica Acta, 54 (3) (2009), 921-926